Pharmacology 1

The need to protect medicines against microbial spoilage

The need to protect foods against microbial spoilage is well appreciated because microbial growth results in obvious signs of deterioration. However, there is a much lower level of awareness among members of the general public of the need to similarly protect cosmetics, toiletries and medicines. Although most medicines present a less favourable environment for microbial …

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Basic concepts of heart

Basic concepts The heart is a pump which together with the vascular system supplies the tissues with blood containing oxygen and nutrients, and removes waste products. The flow of blood around the body is as follows: Deoxygenated blood from body tissues reaches the right atrium through the systemic veins (the superior and inferior venae cavae). Blood …

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Drug interactions and adverse effects

Drugs are chemical substances that cause changes in organisms’ physiology or psychology when consumed. They chemical substances used to treat, prevent, and/or ameliorate diseases. Drug interactions Drugs interact in a number of ways that may produce unwanted effects. Two types of interactions exist: pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic. Pharmacodynamic interactions Pharmacodynamic interactions involve a direct conflict between the …

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Pharmacokinetics of drugs and drug substances

Pharmacology can be divided into two disciplines. These are: Pharmacokinetics: the way the body affects the drug with time, i.e. the factors that determine its absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion. Pharmacodynamics: the biological effect of the drug on the body. 1. Administration Topical Topical drugs are applied where they are needed, giving them the advantage that …

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Drug receptor interactions

Most drugs produce their effects by acting through specific protein molecules called receptors. Receptors respond to endogenous chemicals in the body that are either synaptic transmitter substances (e.g. ACh, noradrenaline) or hormones (endocrine, e.g. insulin; or local mediators, e.g. histamine). These chemicals or drugs are classed as: Agonists: Activate receptors and produce a subsequent response. Antagonists: Associate with …

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Molecular basis of pharmacology

What is pharmacology? Pharmacology is the study of the actions, mechanisms, uses and adverse effects of drugs. A drug is any natural or synthetic substance that alters the physiological state of a living organism. Drugs can be divided into two groups: Medicinal drugs: substances used for the prevention, treatment and diagnosis of disease. Non-medicinal (social) …

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Route of drug administration in humans and animals

The absorption pattern of drugs differs considerably between individual drug substances, as well as between the different administration routes. Dosage forms are designed to provide the drug in a suitable form for absorption from each selected route of administration. The following discussion considers briefly the routes of drug administration and, whilst dosage forms are mentioned, this is …

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